What is the Thyroid?

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck. The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should.

When Do You Need Surgery?

  • Nodule on your thyroid that could be lead to Cancer in future. To save a life from potential cancer situation thyroid removal is necessary for a thyroid nodule.
  • In case, you are diagnosed with thyroid cancer then it is recommended to under Thyroidectomy.
  • Nodule on your thyroid that could be lead to Cancer in future. To save a life from potential cancer situation thyroid removal is necessary for a thyroid nodule.
  • In case, you are diagnosed with thyroid cancer then Thyroidectomy is necessary.
  • Nodule or Goitre is identified and it is accelerating the production and release of the thyroid hormone, due to a toxic nodule, a toxic multinodular goitre or Graves disease.

What Type of Surgery Do You Need?

The extent surgery of Thyroid is examined and eventually discussed between the Patient and the Surgeon. Therefore, it is mainly classified as a Partial Thyroidectomy or a Total Thyroidectomy. Thyroid part removal can be explained as:

  • Open Thyroid Biopsy: Merely operation is used where a nodule is resected directly.
  • Hemithyroidectomy, or lobectomy. In this method, the surgeon will either remove half or one limb of your thyroid. If you have a nodule or low-risk thyroid cancer then this surgery process is recommended.
  • Isthmusectomy- When isthmus, a piece of tissue that connects two limbs is found with tumour Isthmusectomy is done to remove it from the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy- The process of removing the entire thyroid from the patient's body and to cure situations like thyroid cancer, bilateral thyroid nodules, and Graves' disease.

The recommendation on the extent of Thyroid Surgery will be exercised and concluded by the Surgeon. For instance, a Hemithyroidectomy will be the course of treatment when a nodule confined to one side of the Thyroid. It is recommended in Total Thyroidectomy conditions where a large bilateral goitre or large thyroid cancer are being evaluated. However, the extent of Surgery is not only a complex decision for Surgeon but for Patient also. Endocrinologist and Surgeon should be in sync while making any decision on Total Thyroidectomy.

What Is FNA and What Can it Show?

A fine needle aspiration biopsy of a thyroid nodule is a simple and safe procedure performed in the doctor’s office. Typically, the biopsy is performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure accurate placement of the needle within the thyroid nodule. You will be asked to lie down on your back with your head tipped backwards, so that your neck is extended. Sometimes, a pillow is placed under your shoulders to help you get in the best position for the biopsy.

Surgery may be recommended for the following biopsy results:

  • Cancer (papillary cancer)
  • Possible cancer (follicular neoplasm or atypical findings); or
  • Inconclusive biopsy;
  • Molecular marker testing of biopsy specimen which indicates a risk for malignancy.

Surgery may be also recommended for nodules with benign biopsy results if the nodule is large, if it continues to increase in size or if it is causing symptoms (discomfort, difficulty swallowing, etc.). Surgery is also an option for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease or a “toxic nodule”), for large and multinodular goitres and for any goitre that may be causing symptoms